Need a new theory of consciousness? Materialists like Dennett suggest consciousness is the result of a complex machine called a brain. Dualists like Penrose propose consciousness requires a brain plus something else that isn't material (e.g. souls, spirits, quantum noise, pixie dust, etc.). Prashant Singh decided to use ancient Indian Vedic ideas of cognition as a model for consciousness. He goes dualism one better, requiring three components for consciousness. His recently released paper is titled, Towards a Hierarchical Model of Consciousness, Intelligence, Mind and Body (PDF format). "This model proposes consciousness as a nonmaterial phenomenon, distinctly different from matter, and identifies intelligence, mind and boby as three separate but interconnected levels through which consciousness as a causal principle acts to produce what is called 'human' behavior."